No one had shown any interest. That was the severely disappointing facet of Dr. Willy Meyer's participation at the Annual Meeting of the American Medical Association on June 18, 1913, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Dr. Meyer had delivered the fifth and last paper before the Surgical Section. All four speakers preceding him evoked considerable discussion - Leonard Freeman reported on Bone Clamps, John D. Murphy on Elbow Trauma, C. H. Mayo on Thyroid Operation, and J. E. Thompson on Gangrene of Foot. Dr. Meyer's paper, entitled "Extrathoracic and Intrathoracic Esophagoplasty in Connection with Resection of the Thoracic Portion of the Esophagus for Carcinoma"1, presented not only the first successful esophageal resection for cancer, as performed by his associate Franz Torek, but also a clear and concise review of the then suggested and available methods of treatment. It encompassed all the methods being discussed today, including replacement by stomach, small and large intestine, plastic skin tubes and prostheses in both the extra and intrathoracic position. Minutes of the AMA meeting contain this brief note: "5. Willy Meyer, M.D., New York, 'Extrathoracic and Intrathoracic Esophagoplasty ...' No discussion."2
It was difficult to accept such total lack of response toward innovations designed to help break down the last fortress of resistance to the surgeon's hand - the thorax. Much of the indifference was due to an attitude of total hopelessness toward ever achieving safe thoracic surgery, much to complete lack of contact with thoracic problems and their proposed solutions. Dr. Meyer determined, somehow, to rectify this situation. Thus it was lack of enthusiasm that served to ignite the spark which developed, in time, into the first Society for Thoracic Surgery formed in the world.
Willy Meyer had long nurtured the dream of an exciting future with eventual and eventful triumph in the field of Thoracic Surgery. Now he began to solidify in his mind a plan for imparting to others the ardent faith he had in man's ability to break down the barriers against safe and effective surgical procedure in the thorax. Back home in New York, on a Sunday morning walk in Central Park with his son, he spoke of his disappointing experience and commented: "Herbert, we must have our own little Society at which these important problems can be freely and thoroughly discussed." Willy Meyer, man of vision, never abandoned this concept, and a few years later it became reality.
The next four years served as a period of gestation during which Willy Meyer's plan grew and assumed the characteristics of a national association dedicated to the advancement of knowledge for the benefit of all mankind. Since at this time in America, so few surgeons devoted much effort to the thoracic field, over-all experience was minimal and had produced very few papers. Therefore, in order to broaden the field, he envisioned a society "for Thoracic Surgery" rather than "of Thoracic Surgeons". The plan was to include the internist, anesthetist, physiologist, radiologist, as well as the surgeon and others in order to provide for maximal contribution of individual observations since so few possessed a broad base of experience in the new field. It was to be a forum where sincere and dedicated men, groping for answers to barely formulated questions, could teach each other with results of their own trials and experiences. Basically, anyone who could contribute to the development of safe thoracic surgery would be a welcome member of this forum. Since large series of cases in this undeveloped area were unlikely, men whose opinions were based upon careful observation of single cases would be welcome. Above all, there must be opportunity for "full and free discussion". The concept of "free discussion" became a dominant attribute and this privilege was to be preserved at all costs.
Since one single, individual would likely have courted failure in an attempt to organize a national society right from the start, Dr. Meyer conceived the idea of forming a small local group which could then assume a more forceful attitude in establishing the national organization. During these interim four years, a small group of his New York friends had already contributed worthily, under Dr. Meyer's dynamic leadership, toward defining the nature of the organization which was destined to be born under their guiding hands.
Reactions of most contemporaries, however, toward formation of a new Society dedicated to thoracic surgery were pessimistic, to say the least. The substance of their arguments, gleaned from letters, is summarized as follows: Only a few topics could be discussed in such an organization. Empyema, aneurysm, bronchiectasis and tumors of the chest wall seemed to cover the spread. Of these, empyema seemed to be the only subject for which there were any real possibilities of development. Aneurysm as an expression of vascular surgery was a failure. Surgery was leading nowhere in the confused picture involving bronchiectasis and lung abscess. Cancer of the lung wasn't even considered worthy of mention. It was unlikely that there would ever be a practical surgery of the esophagus. Surgical treatment of consumption was dubbed a fad. Everyone should know that one cannot operate on the heart. In two or three years everything will be said and the society will die for lack of interest.
Such were the reactions of many "well-informed" doctors of the day, despite the considerable progress that had already been made by the enterprising few. But it was for the very purpose of reversing these attitudes that the Society was to be established, so that, in an age not yet blessed with instantaneous communications, men could learn to know what was being done, what had been proven, and what was no longer "impossible."
As the year 1917 began to take form, while war clouds lay heavy on our nation moving rapidly toward the gaping chasm of full-scale conflict, Willy Meyer and his dedicated group had reached the point where they were ready to take the first formal steps toward realization of their dream. 1917 hardly presented a climate conducive to such action, but the courage and determination of these men refused to be coerced into abandoning their plan at the behest of an oppressive world situation.
On February 20th of that year, Dr. Willy Meyer welcomed at his office, in his home at 700 Madison Avenue, twenty of his New York friends for the purpose of founding a Society. He had two specific aims in mind which were inseparably connected. The first was to found The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery, to which all promptly agreed and which was soon accomplished at the meeting. The second, and more important task, was the duty of this group to issue at some later date, invitations to a larger group, selected from across the United States and Canada, consisting of those who had demonstrated sufficient interest in thoracic surgery to collaborate in founding a Society of national scope.
The minutes of this highly propitious meeting, as recorded by the then acting secretary, Dr. Kenneth Bulkley, read as follows:3
On the evening of February 20, 1917, on invitation of Dr. Willy Meyer, a meeting was held at his office, 700 Madison Avenue, for the purpose of forming a New York Society for Thoracic Surgery. The following men, representing all specialties interested in the surgery of the thorax except anaesthesists and internists, had been invited by Dr. Meyer to be present:
20. Dr. Sydney Yankauer, Assoc. Surg. Mt. Sinai 616 Madison Ave.
The Meeting was called to order at 9 o'clock by Dr. Meyer who welcomed the guests and briefly outlined the object of forming a Society for Thoracic Surgery. Dr. Meyer felt that it was but natural, with the widening of the Medical horizon, that small groups of physicians have banded together here and there to form small private societies for the study of particular specialties. They did so particularly for the opportunity of free discussion of questions of mutual interest, questions which often hardly evoke the attention or interest of the average medical man. It has thus happened that here in New York a great many such special medical societies exist.
To add another one seemed, at first glance, rather burdensome, possibly even superfluous. Why should not this specialty be discussed before the meetings of other societies? However, it requires knowledge and personal experience to enjoy the discussion of such subjects after a hard day's work. One cannot bring up with advantage all the subjects, which might interest us here, before the Surgical Society or the Surgical Section of the Academy of Medicine. These questions could be discussed - as freely as possible - (possibly one subject an evening) among a group of men thinking and working in the same direction, unhampered by time, unrestricted, and with the possibility of continuation, if so desired, at the next meeting.
With these objects in mind, Dr. Meyer ventured to gather a group of men to band together to form a New York Society for Thoracic Surgery. The response to his invitation was unanimous and enthusiastic, and the meeting tonight is the result.
Dr. Meyer then outlined briefly the points which seemed necessary for discussion.
It was the consensus of opinion of those present that a society for Thoracic Surgery be formed and after due consideration the name "The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery" was adopted. Dr. Willy Meyer was nominated, seconded, and elected permanent Chairman and Dr. Kenneth Bulkley Secretary - Treasurer.
Dr. Meyer then called attention to the fact that 20 men had been asked to form the Society, and requested an expression of opinion as to the limitation of membership. Dr. Lilienthal suggested that the number be limited to 20, and Dr. Einhorn suggested that there be 30 members. Dr. Torek favored the smaller number. A motion, made by Dr. Meyer, and seconded, that the membership be limited to 25 was duly carried.
Dr. Meyer asked for a discussion on the adoption of a constitution and by-laws. It was the unanimous opinion of all-present that there be as little formality as possible and that for the present, at least, the Society dispense with either a constitution or by-laws.
Dr. Meyer suggested that one of the first functions of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery should be the formation of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery, and spoke of the possibility of forming such a Society at the time of the meeting of the American Medical Association in New York in June 1917. Dr. Yankauer suggested that the Chairman appoint a Committee of 3 or 5 to select the names of possible members for the American Society. Dr. Meyer emphasized the importance of including representatives of all specialties in any way associated with thoracic surgery among the names selected. Attention was called to the fact that the membership of the American Gastroenterological Association was limited to 125.
It was moved by Dr. Martin and the motion seconded by Dr. Lilienthal that a committee be appointed to select the names of members for the American Association. Motion carried.
Moved by Dr. Green and seconded by Dr. Yankauer that this committee also select the names of five New York men to complete the Roster of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery and that the names selected by this Committee be referred to the present members for ratification. Motion carried.
Moved by Dr. Yankauer and seconded by Dr. Ware that this committee be appointed by the Chair. Motion carried.
Dr. Meyer suggested that the Society hold two meetings a year, preferably on the fourth Tuesday of November and March. This suggestion placed in form of a motion by Dr. Meyer, seconded by Dr. Ware, and carried.
Moved by Dr. Lilienthal, duly seconded and carried that the next meeting take place March 27, 1917. Moved by Dr. Lilienthal that no papers shall at any time be presented before the Society but that the Scientific Session shall consist of the presentation of cases, case reports, instruments, or X-ray plates, etc. Motion seconded by Dr. Torek. Motion carried.
A motion was made that the Scientific Session begin promptly at 8:30 P.M. and officially stop at 10:30 P.M. It was agreed that the starting time should be 8:30 but the motion to limit the length of the Scientific program was defeated.
After discussion a motion was made by Dr. Yankauer, and seconded, that cases, case reports, instruments, etc., for presentation at a stated meeting be placed in the hands of the Chairman at least 2 weeks before the date of meeting; that from the material submitted the Chairman select at his discretion, with due consideration of precedence and topic for discussion, approximately 5 reports; and that the program so selected by the Chairman be mailed by the Secretary at the earliest possible date to each member of the Society. Motion carried.
Moved by Dr. Stewart, and seconded, that the place of next meeting be decided by the Chair. Motion carried.
The question of publicity was then discussed, but no formal motion placed before the meeting. It was the opinion of those present that no report of the formation of The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery be sent to any medical journal and that the proceedings of the Society and its discussions be not publicly recorded.
Motion to adjourn.
Ground work for a national society had been laid. Willy Meyer's dream had moved a giant step toward fulfillment. Primary features of the Society were now definite, its character and purpose were clear. The next steps to be taken were specific and soon became fact. A Committee on Members was appointed, consisting of Drs. Green, Janeway, Lilienthal, Martin, Meyer, and Bulkley. Within a month, four more names were added to the list of NYSTS Charter Members.
With but one exception, these twenty-four members of the New York Society became Founding Members of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The lone exception was Eugene W. Caldwell, Radiologist to Presbyterian Hospital, electrical genius, who had devoted his life to perfecting "Roentgen ray" diagnostic techniques. Soon after the February meeting, the Army called him to duty; but before that time, excessive exposure to radiation had marked him for early death, a martyr to scientific zeal.
Among the guests present at the founding were 13 surgeons, 3 internists, 2 radiologists, 1 physiologist, and 1 bronchoscopist. In age they varied from 32 to 66, with an average of 48 years. They had been in practice from 8 to 37 years, with an average experience of 23 years per member. All were in active practice in New York City. Their institutions of affiliation were the German Hospital, soon to be known as Lenox Hill Hospital, Mount Sinai Hospital, Presbyterian Hospital, Bellevue Hospital, St. Luke's Hospital, General Memorial Hospital, Babies' Hospital and The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research. All except 4 were graduates of American schools. All except 4 were affiliated with national societies reflecting each individual's scope of interest. All had demonstrated sincere interest in thoracic problems, several had already made important contributions.
The newly-formed membership committee quickly set to work reviewing current medical literature of the United States and Canada in their search for those who had shown a lively interest in problems confronting a thoracic surgeon. As the date for the first stated meeting of the New York Society approached, this committee was able to report that it had completed a list of forty-two names. The first scientific session of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery took place on March 27 according to plan. Dr. Bulkley recorded the proceedings as follows:
March 27th, 1917
Meeting called to order at 8:30 by Dr. Meyer at the home of Dr. Howard Lilienthal, 48 East 74th Street.
The following members were present: Dr. Bulkley, Fischer, Green, Lilienthal, Leckett, Martin, Meltzer, Meyer, Rehling, Stewart, Torek, Ware, and Yankauer.
Reading and adoption of minutes of previous meeting.
The subject of the evening was announced by the Chair as:
The Chair then asked for a discussion on the diagnosis between bronchiectasis and lung abscess. Discussion by Drs. Lilienthal, Yankauer, Meyer, Fischer, Ware, Meltzer, Stewart, and Martin.
At a brief business meeting the Chair announced that on a motion duly made, seconded, and carried, he had appointed the following as the Committee on Members: Drs. Green, Janeway, Lilienthal, Martin, Meyer, and Bulkley. The following report of a meeting of this Committee was then read:
A meeting of this committee was held on the afternoon of March 23rd. At that time the following names were proposed to complete the roster of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery. Dr. Alexis Carrel of the Rockefeller Institute, Dr. John A. Hart-well, Director of the Second Surgical Division Bellevue Hospital, Dr. Chas. N. Dowd, Visiting Surgeon Roosevelt Hospital, and Dr. Abraham O. Wilensky, Adj. Attg. Surg. Mount Sinai Hospital.
The names of the following men were submitted for the American Association for Thoracic Surgery:
The committee requested that the Chairman and Secretary draw up a letter inviting the above men to meet to organize a National Association for Thoracic Surgery and to submit this letter for approval to the members of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery at the next meeting.
This letter has been written and is hereby submitted to the Society for its approval. It is as follows:
Dear Dr. John Doe,
On February 20, 1917 the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery was formed for the purpose of free exchange of views and experiences of such members of our profession who take active interest in the evolution of this chapter of medical science.
The membership of the Society is limited to twenty-five at the present time. It comprises principally surgeons and representatives of a number of specialties that border on thoracic surgery.
One of the outspoken purposes of creating the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery has been to ask men all over our States who are known for their interest and work in diseases of the thorax to combine and form "The American Association for Thoracic Surgery".
It is hoped that the specialties of anatomy, physiology, pathology, internal medicine inclusive of pulmonary tuberculosis and gastroenterology, surgery inclusive of experimental workers, roentgenology, broncho- and esophagoscopy, and anaesthesia will be represented in the American Association.
The coming meeting of the American Medical Association in New York City is considered a favorable opportunity to bring together many of these men.
The Chairman of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery hereby invites you to attend a luncheon at the Hotel Waldorf-Astoria on Thursday, June 7th, 1917 at a quarter after one o'clock at which it is expected "THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION FOR THORACIC SURGERY" will be organized.
Kindly inform the Secretary, Dr. Kenneth Bulkley, 104 East 81st Street, New York City, at your early convenience whether you will be able to attend.
The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery
Dr. Kenneth Bulkley, Secretary
The names of Drs. Carrell, Hartwell, Dowd, and Wilensky were announced for election. On a motion made by Dr. Stewart and duly seconded and carried, the Secretary was instructed to cast one ballot for these four names.
The Secretary was also instructed to cast one ballot for the 42 names of the men to whom invitations to form the American Association for Thoracic Surgery were to be sent.
Thus the first letter of invitation had been drawn up and approved. A membership roster had been proposed and the 42 doctors listed on it soon received their invitations. Willy Meyer's dream had moved several steps closer to becoming reality.
A follow-up letter was mailed on May 26 to the 42 names on the roster and to the members of the NYSTS. It read:
May 26, 1917
The Meeting to which you have been invited June 7th, at the Waldorf Astoria, will be held at the appointed time, and it is hoped by the members of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery that the National Association will be launched at that time.
Again hoping that you will be able to be with us at that time.
Nathan W. Green
On June 4, this final letter was sent to all prospective members:
The Luncheon of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery will take place in the Banquet Hall, first floor of the Waldorf Astoria, on Thursday, June 7th, 1917, at One P.M.
Acting Secretary N. Y. Society for Thoracic Surgery
Since the secretary, Dr. Bulkley, had sailed for military service in France by this time, Dr. Nathan Green became acting secretary of the NYSTS.
The decision to schedule this meeting concurrent with that of the American Medical Association was made in order to provide for the largest possible attendance. Declaration of war was generally considered imminent and an acute shortage of transportation and hotel accommodations was already being felt. War came on April 6, 1917. During that period between establishment of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery and Founding of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery, our nation officially entered the "War to end all Wars."
Despite all unfavorable conditions, the luncheon meeting took place at the Waldorf Astoria on June 7, 1917. Of the 66 individuals invited, 23 attended this meeting which was called to order by Dr. Meyer. The presence of only five doctors from outside New York indicates the extent of travel difficulties, since many had signified acceptance of the invitation to join the organization.
Following are the names of those who were in attendance:
A. A. Law
For reasons previously cited, in addition to various personal reasons, many were unable to attend but expressed the wish that they be included among the Founding Members if the Association were actually formed. The following letter, written by Dr. Rudolph Matas is exemplary of this group:
New York City
Dear Dr. Green;
I greatly regretted my inability to attend the meeting of the Society for Thoracic Surgery, but owing to illness at home and the great pressure of other business, I was not able to leave N.O. I am very much interested in the purpose of the Society and only regret that distracting effects of the present war conditions must necessarily divert the time and thought of many earnest workers into other channels, which, I fear, will interfere with the organization of an active National and even local Society. However, if the movement to establish such a society is to be continued in spite of the adverse conditions, now prevailing, I will be glad to be considered among its most earnest sympathizers and coworkers. I would be glad to subscribe to the Transactions if any are published and to cooperate in any way that I may at this distance.
With kindest regards and best wishes, I am,
Dr. Nathan Green recorded the proceedings for the historic organization meeting of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. His minutes read as follows:
On June 7, 1917, on invitation of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery, a luncheon was given at the Waldorf Astoria, for the purpose of forming the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Men of the following specialties Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Internal Medicine inclusive of pulmonary tuberculosis and gastroenterology, Surgery inclusive of experimental workers, Roentgenology, Broncho- and Esophagoscopy and Anaesthesia were invited.
In calling the meeting to order Dr. Meyer said; Gentlemen: When, on February 20th of this year, the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery was formed for the purpose of a free exchange of views and experiences of such members of our profession as take active interest in the evolution of this chapter of medical science, it was stated that one of the objects in founding the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery was, to create a committee for the purpose of selecting names of such colleagues all over our States as are known for their interest and work in the surgery of the thorax, in order to found the American Association for Thoracic Surgery.
This object, it almost seems, will be realized today. More than half of those invited declared their willingness to join the Association, and the majority of them are here, gathered in this room. Eight others have sent their regrets, but wish to have their names presented for membership. Three who have accepted, are at the front in England and France. A fourth one, the enthusiastic, splendid secretary of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery, Dr. Kenneth Bulkley, is in Paris with Dr. Jos. A. Blake, in the midst of hard work. His place is temporarily filled by Dr. Nathan W. Green, who so courteously allowed this burden to be added to his daily duties.
Gentlemen: Thoracic Surgery, as you all know, has made rapid advances in America. In many places; Hospitals, Medical Schools and Universities, the interest in it is intense. New and important observations are made almost daily. We must have a place to discuss them.
We need not wonder, if the average medical man often seems bored when the subject of thoracic surgery comes up for discussion at our medical meetings. This matter does not carry particular interest, except one has made a study of it. Hence, those interested must be among themselves! When founding the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery we were particularly fortunate in having so many men right on the spot who are active in this latest and last branch of operative surgery. Our Society, which is a private one, started with a membership of thirty. We could easily make it double the number and more, within 24 hours.
However, we do not want to exchange our views with New York colleagues only. We want to discuss matters, at least once a year, with you gentlemen from all over the States, with interest and aims similar to our own.
The members of the New York Society are profoundly grateful to you for having answered our call to come to this meeting. We all bid you a hearty welcome!
I make a motion that the American Association for Thoracic Surgery be formed; the motion was moved, seconded and carried. The Association has been formed.
The first, Gentlemen, is the election of the Officers. A President, Vice President and Secretary-Treasurer. I offer the name for President, of a man who is leading in this work, it is Dr. Samuel J. Meltzer. It has been moved seconded and carried that Dr. Meltzer be elected to President. Dr. Meltzer: I thank you for the nomination, but I would ask you to reconsider your motion and in my place put the name of Dr. Samuel Robinson. Dr. Robinson: As Dr. Meltzer has already been elected, I don't see how he can do this but I appreciate the compliment he has paid me. The Secretary was then asked to cast a vote. I would ask Dr. Meltzer to occupy the seat of President.
The next election was for Vice President. It has been moved, seconded and carried that Dr. Willy Meyer be elected to Vice President.
The next election was for Secretary Treasurer. It has been moved, seconded and carried unanimously that Dr. Nathan W. Green be elected Secretary Treasurer.
Dr. Meyer then made a motion, that in as much as we have three officers you will empower these three officers to select four members who, with them will make a council. This council to conduct the business of the first Session Meeting in 1918, to select the place of meeting, make the program, etc. The motion was moved, seconded and carried.
The members of the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery and all those present are founders of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery. The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery have invited about thirty and these who have accepted I should think are members and we need not elect them as these gentlemen who have accepted are, just as we are, members. The President considered this correct.
The Secretary wishes to have the names of Drs. Von Eberts, Brown, Scudder, Baldwin, Murphy, Carson and Corbett, Garvin presented for membership. This was moved and seconded that the above are members of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery.
Dr. Ricketts asked: What are the dues of this Association or is this to be left to the officers. A motion was made that this be left to the officers to decide.
Dr. Meltzer then made a motion that a vote of thanks be offered to Dr. Meyer for all the trouble he has taken to entertain us. Dr. Meyer: I am very glad to have given the time to the New York Society for Thoracic Surgery because the American Association is now an absolute fact.
Dr. Meyer then made a motion to adjourn. It was moved and seconded.
Dr. Nathan W. Green, Secretary - Treasurer
As indicated in the minutes, members of The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery, which organization had issued the original invitation, and those invited individuals who had accepted and were present, were to be considered charter members of The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. It was also proposed and approved, that those who had accepted the invitation but were unable to attend the luncheon meeting were to be accepted as charter members. Thus the following individuals were informed, by the note quoted below, of the formation of the Association and their election to membership in absentium.
Dr. E. Wyllys Andrews
July 15, 1917
My dear Dr. -
The Council of the American Association for Thoracic Surgery takes pleasure in informing you that the Association was formed on Thursday, June 7th, 1917, and upon that occasion you were elected a member.
Kindly signify your acceptance to the Secretary.
Dr. Nathan W. Green, Sec. and Treas.
152 West 57th Street, New York City
Although the charter roster for the AATS was completed within a relatively short time, this was not accomplished without a certain amount of perseverance. Many doctors accepted but indicated their probable inability to attend meetings due to distance and travel restrictions. Some reiterated previously stated misgivings about the future, commenting that lung abscess, bronchiectasis, empyema and chest wall tumors comprised a narrow field and discussion would soon falter due to repetition. Many again questioned the wisdom of the effort during the tangled times of war.
Dr. Chevalier Jackson wrote that he disclaimed any intent to be known as a thoracic surgeon. His letter of July 17, 1917, addressed to Dr. Green, reads in part, "I do not like to sail under false colors and under no circumstances would I think about operating upon the thorax". However, after Dr. Green replied, emphasizing the wide selection of members from all fields of work, Dr. Jackson accepted the invitation.
Dr. Freeman, Dr. Fred Lunde, and several others declined membership because they belonged to about all the societies they could carry at the time. Rufus Cole declined with the statement that he could not contribute much but hoped that the Association might be the means of clearing up a number of obscure points, particularly in pulmonary pathology.
Before leaving The New York Society for Thoracic Surgery, which had by now admirably served its purpose of acting as launching pad for the AATS, let us insert a word as to its own development. It still lives as a vigorous organization, meeting three times a year, with membership far exceeding 100. Of particular interest is the fact that six of the original "New York Thoracic" Founders eventually became Presidents to the "American Thoracic."